References: Mpumalanga, South Africa - Oats - 2021

Postharvest loss profiles (PHL profiles) quantify the expected loss – as a percentage – at each point along the postharvest chain. This loss data is collected by reviewing scientific literature and is broken down by crop, type of farm and climate type (based on the Köppen-Geiger climate classification). These profiles provide percentage loss figures for the various crops throughout the value chain under varying conditions and are updated as new research becomes available.

Read more about how APHLIS estimates losses ›

Help us improve APHLIS

We are always looking to improve our postharvest loss estimates. If you know of any interesting studies, or if you have any field data that we could include in our algorithm, please email us on

The APHLIS method of estimating losses

Hodges, R., Bernard, M., Rembold, F. (2014). APHLIS – Postharvest cereal losses in Sub-Saharan Africa, their estimation, assessment and reduction. European Commission, JRC Technical reports, 160 pp.

Losses by value chain step

Harvesting/field drying

  • Boxall RA (1998): Grains post-harvest loss assessment in Ethiopia. Final report NRI Report No 2377. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, UK. pp 44.
  • De Lima C.P.F. (1982): Strengthening the food conservation and crop storage section (Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Swaziland). (Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Swaziland). Field documents and final technical report. Project PFL/SWA/002. Rome, FAO.

Further drying

Threshing and Shelling


Transport from field

Household-level storage

Transport to market

Market storage

  • Egyir I.S., Sarpong D.B., Obeng-Ofori D. (2011): M&E System for post harvest losses (Pilot Study) Policy Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation Directorate, Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Ghana. Final Report. Pp. 106

Nutritional losses

  • FAO, (2010). Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition. Report of an expert consultation. FAO, Food and Nutrition Paper, 91. FAO/WHO, (2007).
  • Joint FAO/WHO scientific update on carbohydrates in human nutrition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Supplement: 09 Nov 2007.
  • Governments of Australia and New Zealand, (2019). Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand.
  • Institute of Medicine (IoM), (2005). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 1358 pp. Institute of Medicine (IoM), (2011).
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 1132 pp.
  • Nutrition for Developing Countries, (2015). Appendix 1. Tables of energy requirements and recommended intakes of nutrients. Kind, F.S., Burgess, A., Quinn, V.J., Osei, A.K. (Eds). pp 322-326. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press.
  • USAID (undated). STATcompiler: The DHS Program, Demographic and Health Surveys.
  • UNESDA (United Nations Department of Economics and Social Affairs), (2017). World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision.

Nutritional impact

The calculations for nutritional impact are based on the same studies as nutritional losses above.

Financial impact

Contextual data

See how APHLIS uses contextual data to estimate losses.

List of additional studies used for this data.

Larger grain borer (LGB, Prostephanus truncatus)
  • Boxall, R.A., 2002. Damage and loss caused by the Larger Grain Borer Prostephanus truncatus. Integrated Pest Management Reviews, 7: 105-121.
  • Dick, K., 1989. A review of insect infestation of maize in farm storage in Africa with special reference to the ecology and control of Prostephanus truncatus. Overseas Development Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, UK: Bulletin 18, pp. 42.
  • Dunstan, W.R. & Magazini, I. 1980. Outbreaks and new records. Tanzania. The larger grain borer on stored products. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin. 29:80–81.
  • Golob, P., 2002. Chemical, physical and cultural control of Prostephanus truncatus. Integrated Pest Management Reviews, 7: 245-277.
  • Hodges, R.J., Dunstan, W.R., Magazini, I., Golob, P. 1983. An outbreak of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in East Nang’ayo, F.L.O., Hill, M.G., Chandi, E.A., Nzeve, N.V. and Obiero, J. The natural environment as a reservoir for the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in Kenya. African Crop Science Journal, 1(1): 39–47.
  • Muatinte, B.M., Boukouvala, M., Garcia-Lara, S., Lopez-Castillo, L.M., 2019. The threat of the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and practical control options for the pest. CAB Reviews Perspectives in Agriculture Veterinary Science Nutrition and Natural Resources, 14(041): 1-25.
  • Makundi, R.H., Swila, N.N., Misangu, R.N., Reuben, S.W.M., Mwatawala, M., Sikira, A., Kilonzo, B.S., Lyimo, H., et al. 2010. Dynamics of infestation and losses of stored maize due to the larger grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus Horn) and maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky). Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 43(14):1346–1355. DOI: 10.1080/03235400802425804.
  • Mlambo, S., Mvumi, B.M., Stathers, T., Mubayiwa, M. & Nyabako, T. 2017. Field efficacy of hermetic and other maize grain storage options under smallholder farmer management. Crop Protection, 98: 198–210. DOI: 10.1016/j.cropro.2017.04.001.
  • Mlambo, S., Mvumi, B.M., Stathers, T., Mubayiwa, M. & Nyabako, T. 2018. Field efficacy and persistence of synthetic pesticidal dusts on stored maize grain under contrasting agro-climatic conditions. Journal of Stored Products Research, 76: 129-139. DOI: 10.1016/j.jspr.2018.01.009.

Data version 2.19.3