References: Ethiopia - All crops - All years

Postharvest loss profiles (PHL profiles) quantify the expected loss – as a percentage – at each point along the postharvest chain. This loss data is collected by reviewing scientific literature and is broken down by crop, type of farm and climate type (based on the Köppen-Geiger climate classification). These profiles provide percentage loss figures for the various crops throughout the value chain under varying conditions and are updated as new research becomes available.

Read more about how APHLIS estimates losses ›

Help us improve APHLIS

We are always looking to improve our postharvest loss estimates. If you know of any interesting studies, or if you have any field data that we could include in our algorithm, please email us on info@aphlis.net

The APHLIS method of estimating losses

Hodges, R., Bernard, M., Rembold, F. (2014). APHLIS – Postharvest cereal losses in Sub-Saharan Africa, their estimation, assessment and reduction. European Commission, JRC Technical reports, 160 pp.

Losses by value chain step

Harvesting/field drying

  • Bakhwar, A. O., Baoom, A. A., Bokair, Alssagheer, M. A. (2005): Harvesting and threshing losses of sorghum and wheat in mid high lands region/Dhammar. University of Aden Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 9 (1), 47-54
  • Boxall RA (1998): Grains post-harvest loss assessment in Ethiopia. Final report NRI Report No 2377. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, UK. pp 44.
  • Calverley D.J.B. (1996): A study of loss assessment in eleven projects in Asia concerned with rice. Rome, FAO ( (PFL/INS/001).
  • De Lima C.P.F. (1982): Strengthening the food conservation and crop storage section (Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Swaziland). (Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Swaziland). Field documents and final technical report. Project PFL/SWA/002. Rome, FAO.
  • Grolleaud M. (1997): Post-Harvest Losses: Discovering the Full Story. UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, 1997), pp. 34
  • Huq F., Greeley M. (1980): Rice in Bangladesh: An empirical analysis of farm level food losses in five post-harvest operations. In: Grain quality improvement - Proceedings of the 3rd annual workshop on grains post-harvest technology. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 29-31 January 1980. 245-262. - also see - Greeley M. (1982) Pinpointing post-harvest losses. Ceres 15 (1), 30-37.
  • Lars-Ove Jonsson, Kashweka K. (1987): Relationship between drying, harvest and storage losses, production and consumption of maize for a rural household in Zambia. In: Holmes J.C. (editor) Improving food crop production on smal farms in Africa. FAO/SIDA Seminar on increased Food Production through low-cost food crops technology, Harare (Zimbabwe), 2-17 March 1987.
  • Mvumi B.M., Giga D.P., Chiuswa D.V. (1995): The maize (Zea mays L.) post-production practices of smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe: findings from surveys. Journal of Applied Science in Southern Africa 1 (2), 115-130.
  • Odogola W.R., Henriksson R. (1991): Post harvest management and storage of maize. UNDP/OPS Regional Programme, Harare December 1991. (very useful background on post-harvest handling)
  • Repoblika Malagasy (1987): Enquete sur les pertes de paddy apres recolte. Ministere de la production agricole et de la reforme agraire. Pp 17 + tables
  • Silim M.N., Odogola W., Amenet J. (1991): Techncial report of the post havrest loss prevention project 1987-1991. FAO (PFL/UGA/001), pp 131.
  • Smit C. (1985): Post-harvest losses of some staples crops at farm level in Africa. Report on the regional workshop on national programming and intercountry co-operation prevention of food losses Volume II. UN Food and Agriculture Organisation, African Regional Centre for Technology, Dakar Senegal 6-10 May 1985. pp. 124-137.
  • Vervroegen D., Yehwola F. (1990): Project for the identification of post-production grain losses and training on their eeduction in Wollo Region, Ethiopia. FAO terminal report, Action Programme for the prevention of Food Losses. FAO terminal report, Action Programme for the prevention of Food Losses. United Nations Food and Agricaulture Organisation, pp. 17
  • Singano C. (2008): Singano C. (pers comm.) Principal Agricultural Research Scientist, Department of Agricultural Research Services, Malawi. Ppers comm. Principal Agricultural Research Scientist, Department of Agricultural Research Services, Malawi.
  • Egyir I.S., Sarpong D.B., Obeng-Ofori D. (2011): M&E System for post harvest losses (Pilot Study) Policy Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation Directorate, Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Ghana. Final Report. Pp. 106
  • Appiah F., Guisse R., Dartey P.K.A. (2011): Post harvest losses of rice from harvesting to milling in Ghana. Journal of Stored Products and Postharvest Research 2(4), pp. 64-71.
  • Ofusu T., Manful JT, Boxall R. (1998): Improving the competitiveness and marketability of locally-produced rice in Ghana. 3. An assessment of rice post-harvest systems. Department for International Development (DFID), Crop Postharvest Programme, Project R6688. pp 37

Further drying

  • Lars-Ove Jonsson, Kashweka K. (1987): Relationship between drying, harvest and storage losses, production and consumption of maize for a rural household in Zambia. In: Holmes J.C. (editor) Improving food crop production on smal farms in Africa. FAO/SIDA Seminar on increased Food Production through low-cost food crops technology, Harare (Zimbabwe), 2-17 March 1987.
  • Odogola W.R., Henriksson R. (1991): Post harvest management and storage of maize. UNDP/OPS Regional Programme, Harare December 1991. (very useful background on post-harvest handling)

Threshing and shelling

  • Bakhwar, A. O., Baoom, A. A., Bokair, Alssagheer, M. A. (2005): Harvesting and threshing losses of sorghum and wheat in mid high lands region/Dhammar. University of Aden Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 9 (1), 47-54
  • Boxall RA (1998): Grains post-harvest loss assessment in Ethiopia. Final report NRI Report No 2377. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, UK. pp 44.
  • Calverley D.J.B. (1996): A study of loss assessment in eleven projects in Asia concerned with rice. Rome, FAO ( (PFL/INS/001).
  • Grolleaud M. (1997): Post-Harvest Losses: Discovering the Full Story. UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, 1997), pp. 34
  • Huq F., Greeley M. (1980): Rice in Bangladesh: An empirical analysis of farm level food losses in five post-harvest operations. In: Grain quality improvement - Proceedings of the 3rd annual workshop on grains post-harvest technology. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 29-31 January 1980. 245-262. - also see - Greeley M. (1982) Pinpointing post-harvest losses. Ceres 15 (1), 30-37.
  • Kidane, Y., Habteyes Y. (1989): Food grain losses in tradional storage facilities in three areas of Ethiopia. In: Proceedings of 'Towards a food and nutrition strategy for Ethiopia'. Alemaya University of Agriculture, 8-12 December 1986, Alemaya, Ethiopia.
  • Mvumi B.M., Giga D.P., Chiuswa D.V. (1995): The maize (Zea mays L.) post-production practices of smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe: findings from surveys. Journal of Applied Science in Southern Africa 1 (2), 115-130.
  • Odogola W.R., Henriksson R. (1991): Post harvest management and storage of maize. UNDP/OPS Regional Programme, Harare December 1991. (very useful background on post-harvest handling)
  • Repoblika Malagasy (1987): Enquete sur les pertes de paddy apres recolte. Ministere de la production agricole et de la reforme agraire. Pp 17 + tables
  • Smit C. (1985): Post-harvest losses of some staples crops at farm level in Africa. Report on the regional workshop on national programming and intercountry co-operation prevention of food losses Volume II. UN Food and Agriculture Organisation, African Regional Centre for Technology, Dakar Senegal 6-10 May 1985. pp. 124-137.
  • Vervroegen D., Yehwola F. (1990): Project for the identification of post-production grain losses and training on their eeduction in Wollo Region, Ethiopia. FAO terminal report, Action Programme for the prevention of Food Losses. FAO terminal report, Action Programme for the prevention of Food Losses. United Nations Food and Agricaulture Organisation, pp. 17
  • Singano C. (2008): Singano C. (pers comm.) Principal Agricultural Research Scientist, Department of Agricultural Research Services, Malawi. Ppers comm. Principal Agricultural Research Scientist, Department of Agricultural Research Services, Malawi.
  • Egyir I.S., Sarpong D.B., Obeng-Ofori D. (2011): M&E System for post harvest losses (Pilot Study) Policy Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation Directorate, Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Ghana. Final Report. Pp. 106
  • Appiah F., Guisse R., Dartey P.K.A. (2011): Post harvest losses of rice from harvesting to milling in Ghana. Journal of Stored Products and Postharvest Research 2(4), pp. 64-71.

Winnowing

  • Boxall RA (1998): Grains post-harvest loss assessment in Ethiopia. Final report NRI Report No 2377. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, UK. pp 44.
  • Repoblika Malagasy (1987): Enquete sur les pertes de paddy apres recolte. Ministere de la production agricole et de la reforme agraire. Pp 17 + tables
  • Vervroegen D., Yehwola F. (1990): Project for the identification of post-production grain losses and training on their eeduction in Wollo Region, Ethiopia. FAO terminal report, Action Programme for the prevention of Food Losses. FAO terminal report, Action Programme for the prevention of Food Losses. United Nations Food and Agricaulture Organisation, pp. 17

Transport from field

  • Boxall RA (1998): Grains post-harvest loss assessment in Ethiopia. Final report NRI Report No 2377. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, UK. pp 44.
  • Huq F., Greeley M. (1980): Rice in Bangladesh: An empirical analysis of farm level food losses in five post-harvest operations. In: Grain quality improvement - Proceedings of the 3rd annual workshop on grains post-harvest technology. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 29-31 January 1980. 245-262. - also see - Greeley M. (1982) Pinpointing post-harvest losses. Ceres 15 (1), 30-37.
  • Kidane, Y., Habteyes Y. (1989): Food grain losses in tradional storage facilities in three areas of Ethiopia. In: Proceedings of 'Towards a food and nutrition strategy for Ethiopia'. Alemaya University of Agriculture, 8-12 December 1986, Alemaya, Ethiopia.
  • Odogola W.R., Henriksson R. (1991): Post harvest management and storage of maize. UNDP/OPS Regional Programme, Harare December 1991. (very useful background on post-harvest handling)
  • Repoblika Malagasy (1987): Enquete sur les pertes de paddy apres recolte. Ministere de la production agricole et de la reforme agraire. Pp 17 + tables
  • Vervroegen D., Yehwola F. (1990): Project for the identification of post-production grain losses and training on their eeduction in Wollo Region, Ethiopia. FAO terminal report, Action Programme for the prevention of Food Losses. FAO terminal report, Action Programme for the prevention of Food Losses. United Nations Food and Agricaulture Organisation, pp. 17
  • Singano C. (2008): Singano C. (pers comm.) Principal Agricultural Research Scientist, Department of Agricultural Research Services, Malawi. Ppers comm. Principal Agricultural Research Scientist, Department of Agricultural Research Services, Malawi.
  • Egyir I.S., Sarpong D.B., Obeng-Ofori D. (2011): M&E System for post harvest losses (Pilot Study) Policy Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation Directorate, Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Ghana. Final Report. Pp. 106

Household-level storage

  • Adams J.M. (1977): The evaluation of losses in maize stored on a selection of small farms in Zambia, with particular reference to the development of methodology. Tropical Stored Products Information 33, 19-24.
  • Binder K.F., Masebo B., K.F. Ngulbe (1994): Storage losses of maize under smallholders' conditions. Part1 Karonga Add, Northern Region. Part1 Karonga Add, Northern Region. Malawi-German Biocontrol and Post-harvest Project (MGBPP)/ Lunyangwa Agricultural Research Station, Crop Storage Unit, pp. 18.
  • Boxall R.A. (1984): Farm level storage losses in eastern Nepal. Tropical stored products information. 50 p 20-25.
  • Calverley D.J.B. (1996): A study of loss assessment in eleven projects in Asia concerned with rice. Rome, FAO ( (PFL/INS/001).
  • De Lima C.P.F. (1979): The assessment of losses due to insects and rodents in maize stored for subsistence in Kenya. Tropical Stored Products Information 38, pp21-25.
  • De Lima C.P.F. (1982): Strengthening the food conservation and crop storage section (Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Swaziland). (Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Swaziland). Field documents and final technical report. Project PFL/SWA/002. Rome, FAO.
  • Giles P.H. (1986): Post-maturity grain losses in the field. In: Maize Conservation on the farm. Proceedings of a seminar at Kisumu, Kenta 21-23 Janaury 1986. Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, Kenya. pp 1-21.
  • Giles P.H. (1986): Conservation of maize in various farm storage management systems. In: Maize Conservation on the farm. Proceedings of a seminar at Kisumu, Kenta 21-23 Janaury 1986. Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, Kenya. pp 94-113.
  • Golob P. (1981): A practical appraisal of on-farm storage losses and loss assessment methods in the Shire Valley of Malawi. Tropical Stored Products Information 40, 5-13.
  • Golob P. (1981): A practical appraisal of on-farm storage losses and loss assessment methods in Malawi 2: The Lilongwe land development programme area. The Lilongwe land development programme area. Tropical Stored Products Information 41, 5-11.
  • Golob P., Boag C. (1985): Report on field trials to control Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera:Bostichidae) in western Tanzania 1983/84 and 1984/85. Project No. A1074. (unpublished)
  • Haile A. (2006): On-farm studies on sorghum and chickpea in Eritrea. African Journal of Biotechnology 5 (17) 1537-1544.
  • Henkes C. (1992): Investigations into insect population dynamics, damage and losses of stored maize - an approach to IPM in small farms in Tanzania with special reference to Prostephanus truncatus (Horn). GTZ, Pickuben 4, D-2000 Hamburg 11, Germany. pp 124.
  • Hodges R.J. (2006): Post-harvest Team: Final report on the mahangu grain management survey and loss assessment baseline. National Agricultural Support Services Programme (NASSP). Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry, Namibia, NASSP Report No. 006/2006, pp. 99.
  • Hodges R.J. (1983): An outbreak of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in East Africa. Protection Ecology, 5, 1983-194.
  • Hodges R.J., Hall A.J., Jayaraj K., Jaiswal P., Potdar N., Yog, B., Navi S.S. (1999): Quality changes in farm-stored sorghum grown in the wet or dry season in South India: A technical and social study. NRI Report 2412. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK. pp. 33
  • Huq F., Greeley M. (1980): Rice in Bangladesh: An empirical analysis of farm level food losses in five post-harvest operations. In: Grain quality improvement - Proceedings of the 3rd annual workshop on grains post-harvest technology. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 29-31 January 1980. 245-262. - also see - Greeley M. (1982) Pinpointing post-harvest losses. Ceres 15 (1), 30-37.
  • Katerere M., Giga D. (1990): Grain Storage Losses in Zimbabwe. ISSN 0850856 97pp. Environmental Development Action, Occassional Paper series, 132.
  • Kidane, Y., Habteyes Y. (1989): Food grain losses in tradional storage facilities in three areas of Ethiopia. In: Proceedings of 'Towards a food and nutrition strategy for Ethiopia'. Alemaya University of Agriculture, 8-12 December 1986, Alemaya, Ethiopia.
  • Nyambo B.T. (1993): Post-harvest maize and sorghum grain losses in tradtional and imporved stores in South Nyanza district, Kenya. International Journal of Pest Management, 39(2) 181-187
  • Pushpamma, P., Chittemma Rao, K., Sudhakar Reddy, K. & Prameela, D. (1985): Storage of sorghum and millets at domestic level in Andhra Pradesh, India. Bull. Grain Technol., 23: 50-60.
  • Ratnadass A. (1990): Les pertes occasionnees par les insectes au sorgho stocke dans des village de l'Ouham-Pende et de l'Ouham (Republique centrafricaine). L'Agromomie Tropicale 45 (1) 31- 41
  • Ratnadass A., Cisse B., Diarra D., Sidibe B, Sogoba B., Thiero C.A.T. (1999): Faune des stocks de sorgho dans deux regions du Mali et comparaison des pertes infligees aux varieties locales ou introduites pour ameliorer le rendement. Annales de la Societe Entomologie de France 35, 489-495.
  • Schulten G.G.M., Westwood D. (1972): Grain storage project Malawi. December 1969 - June 1972. December 1969 - June 1972. Ministry of Agriculture, Malawi.
  • Seifelnasr Y.E. (1992): Stored grain insects found in sorghum stored in the central production belt of Sudan and losses cause. Tropical Science 32, 223-230
  • SSEAD Consultancy (1997): Amhara national Regional State, Bureau of Agriculture, Regional Crop Pest Survey Report on Insect Pests. Addis Ababa (quoted in detail in Boxall 1998)
  • Singano C. (2008): Singano C. (pers comm.) Principal Agricultural Research Scientist, Department of Agricultural Research Services, Malawi. Ppers comm. Principal Agricultural Research Scientist, Department of Agricultural Research Services, Malawi.
  • Ratnadass A., Berte S., Diarra D., Cisse B. (1994): Insect losses on sorghum stored in selected Malian villages, with particular emphasis on varietal differences in grain resistance. In: Proceedings of the 6th Working Conference on Stored Products Protection, Canberra, Australia, 17 - 22 April 1994. Eds. Highley E., Wright E.J., Banks H.J. and Champ B.R.,. Volume 2, pp 953-959.

Transport to market

  • Odogola W.R., Henriksson R. (1991): Post harvest management and storage of maize. UNDP/OPS Regional Programme, Harare December 1991. (very useful background on post-harvest handling)
  • Egyir I.S., Sarpong D.B., Obeng-Ofori D. (2011): M&E System for post harvest losses (Pilot Study) Policy Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation Directorate, Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Ghana. Final Report. Pp. 106

Market storage

  • Boxall RA (1998): Grains post-harvest loss assessment in Ethiopia. Final report NRI Report No 2377. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, UK. pp 44.
  • Egyir I.S., Sarpong D.B., Obeng-Ofori D. (2011): M&E System for post harvest losses (Pilot Study) Policy Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation Directorate, Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Ghana. Final Report. Pp. 106

Nutritional losses

  • FAO, (2010). Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition. Report of an expert consultation. FAO, Food and Nutrition Paper, 91. FAO/WHO, (2007).
  • Joint FAO/WHO scientific update on carbohydrates in human nutrition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Supplement: 09 Nov 2007.
  • Governments of Australia and New Zealand, (2019). Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand.
  • Institute of Medicine (IoM), (2005). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 1358 pp. Institute of Medicine (IoM), (2011).
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 1132 pp.
  • Nutrition for Developing Countries, (2015). Appendix 1. Tables of energy requirements and recommended intakes of nutrients. Kind, F.S., Burgess, A., Quinn, V.J., Osei, A.K. (Eds). pp 322-326. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press.
  • USAID (undated). STATcompiler: The DHS Program, Demographic and Health Surveys.
  • UNESDA (United Nations Department of Economics and Social Affairs), (2017). World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision.

Nutritional impact

The calculations for nutritional impact are based on the same studies as nutritional losses above.

Financial impact

Contextual data

See how APHLIS uses contextual data to estimate losses.

List of additional studies used for this data.

Larger grain borer (LGB, Prostephanus truncatus)
  • Boxall, R.A., 2002. Damage and loss caused by the Larger Grain Borer Prostephanus truncatus. Integrated Pest Management Reviews, 7: 105-121.
  • Dick, K., 1989. A review of insect infestation of maize in farm storage in Africa with special reference to the ecology and control of Prostephanus truncatus. Overseas Development Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, UK: Bulletin 18, pp. 42.
  • Dunstan, W.R. & Magazini, I. 1980. Outbreaks and new records. Tanzania. The larger grain borer on stored products. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin. 29:80–81.
  • Golob, P., 2002. Chemical, physical and cultural control of Prostephanus truncatus. Integrated Pest Management Reviews, 7: 245-277.
  • Hodges, R.J., Dunstan, W.R., Magazini, I., Golob, P. 1983. An outbreak of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in East Nang’ayo, F.L.O., Hill, M.G., Chandi, E.A., Nzeve, N.V. and Obiero, J. The natural environment as a reservoir for the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in Kenya. African Crop Science Journal, 1(1): 39–47.
  • Muatinte, B.M., Boukouvala, M., Garcia-Lara, S., Lopez-Castillo, L.M., 2019. The threat of the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and practical control options for the pest. CAB Reviews Perspectives in Agriculture Veterinary Science Nutrition and Natural Resources, 14(041): 1-25.
  • Makundi, R.H., Swila, N.N., Misangu, R.N., Reuben, S.W.M., Mwatawala, M., Sikira, A., Kilonzo, B.S., Lyimo, H., et al. 2010. Dynamics of infestation and losses of stored maize due to the larger grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus Horn) and maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky). Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 43(14):1346–1355. DOI: 10.1080/03235400802425804.
  • Mlambo, S., Mvumi, B.M., Stathers, T., Mubayiwa, M. & Nyabako, T. 2017. Field efficacy of hermetic and other maize grain storage options under smallholder farmer management. Crop Protection, 98: 198–210. DOI: 10.1016/j.cropro.2017.04.001.
  • Mlambo, S., Mvumi, B.M., Stathers, T., Mubayiwa, M. & Nyabako, T. 2018. Field efficacy and persistence of synthetic pesticidal dusts on stored maize grain under contrasting agro-climatic conditions. Journal of Stored Products Research, 76: 129-139. DOI: 10.1016/j.jspr.2018.01.009.

Data version 2.17.2